Diabetes mellitus is a condition that occurs when the body can't use glucose normally means increased level of glucose in the blood.. The levels of glucose in the blood are controlled by a hormone called insulin, which is made by the pancreas. Insulin helps glucose enter the cells. In diabetes, the pancreas does not make enough insulin, that is type 1 diabetes or the body can't respond normally to the insulin that is made, that is type 2 diabetes. This causes glucose levels in the blood to rise, leading to symptoms such as increased urination, extreme thirst, and unexplained weight loss.
Blood sugar levels:
- Fasting blood sugar (FBS)-70-100mg/dl-Normal
- FBS-101-126mg/dl-Early diabetes
- FBS-more than 126mg/dl-Diabetes
- FBS-below 70mg/dl-Hypoglycemia
- FBS-less than 50mg/dl-Insulin shock
- Post prandial blood sugar (PPBS)-70-140mg/dl-Normal
- PPBS-140-200mg/dl-Early diabetes
- PPBS-more than 200mg/dl-Diabetes
- Random blood sugar (RBS)-70-140mg/dl-Normal
- RBS-more than 200mg/dl-Diabetes
Types of Diabetes mellitus:
- Type 1 diabetes
- Type 2 diabetes
- Gestational diabetes
- Surgically induced diabetes
- Chemically induced diabetes
- Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA)
1. Type 1 diabetes mellitus
It is also called insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM) or juvenile diabetes, because type 1 diabetes usually develops in children and teenagers, though it can develop at any age and is characterized by a severe deficiency in insulin secretion resulting from atrophy of the islets of Langerhans and causing hyperglycemia and a marked tendency toward ketoacidosis.
Causative factors for type 1 diabetes mellitus:
The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is not known, researchers believe the disease develops when a virus or environmental toxin damages the pancreas or causes the body's immune system to attack the beta cells of the pancreas As a result, the beta cells of the pancreas can no longer produce enough insulin. Genetics may play a role in this process, and exposure to certain viruses may trigger the disease.
- Increased thirst and hunger
- Increased frequency urination
- Weight loss
- Blurred vision
- Decreased mental sharpness
- Extreme thirst and hunger
- Frequent skin infections
- Slow-healing wounds
These serious warning symptoms may be the first signs of type 1 diabetes or in some cases when blood sugar levels are very high. That is called diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis symptoms are
- Deep, rapid breathing
- Dryness of skin and mouth
- Flushed face
- Fruity breath odor
- Nausea or vomiting, inability to keep down fluids
- Pain abdomen
In some cases when blood sugar level falls below 70 mg/dL.That is called Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia).It is develop quickly in people with diabetes who are taking insulin.Hypglycemia symptoms are
How to diagnose type 1 diabetes mellitus?
To diagnose diabetes can be done by measuring sugar levels in several ways:
- Fasting sugar (first thing in the morning)
- Random sugar (done at any time of the day)
- Sugar level 2 hours after a standard load of carbohydrates
2. Type 2 diabetes mellitus
It is a common form of diabetes mellitus that develops especially in adults and most often in obese individuals and it is characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from impaired insulin utilization with the body's inability to compensate with increased insulin production. But either their pancreas does not make enough insulin or the body cannot use the insulin well enough. When there is not enough insulin as it should be, glucose can't get into the body's cells. When glucose builds up in the blood instead of going into cells, the body's cells are not able to function properly. It is also called non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) this form of diabetes. It is also responsible for nearly 95% of diabetes cases in the United States
Causative factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus:
Causes are combination of genetic and environmental factors. Although there is a strong genetic predisposition, the risk is greatly increased when associated with lifestyle factors such as
- High blood pressure
- Overweight or obesity
- Insufficient physical activity
- Poor diet
- Family history of diabetes
- Excessively thirst
- Frequent urination
- Feeling tired and lethargic
- Always feeling hungry
- Having cuts that heal slowly
- Skin infections with itching
- Blurred vision
- Gradually increasing of weight
- Mood swings
- Headaches with dizziness
- Leg cramps.
How to diagnose type 2 diabetes mellitus?
- Fasting blood glucose test-Glucose levels of 7.0mmol/litre or greater suggest type 2 diabetes.
- Two-hour blood glucose test (glucose tolerance test)-Glucose levels of 11.1mmol/litre or greater suggest you have type 2 diabetes.
- Glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C) test-HbA1C is a protein that is produced when you have high blood glucose levels over a long period of time. HbA1C levels of 48mmol/mol or greater suggest you have type 2 diabetes.
- If blood test results suggest you have type 2 diabetes, you may need to have repeat tests before the diagnosis is confirmed.
3. Gestational diabetes:
Which causes high blood sugar, develops during pregnancy (gestation) and is caused by increased production of hormones that make the body less able to use insulin as well as it should. Most gestational diabetes goes away after birth but it does put you at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes later.
4. Chemically induced diabetes:
Some types of medication can cause blood sugar level to be higher than normal. Steroids, specifically cortisone or prednisone, are the most common cause of chemically induced diabetes.
5. Surgically induced diabetes:
When surgery is performed on the pancreas for any reason, there's a risk that its ability to produce insulin will change. This condition may be temporary or permanent. In this type of diabetes frequent testing of blood sugar is needed to monitor whether medications or insulin injections may be necessary.
How Homoeopathy helps to cure Diabetes?
In homeopathy, diabetes is seen as a reflection of the body’s inability to function optimally. There is an imbalance that results in the body’s incapacity to effectively utilize the insulin that it produces, or to produce sufficient insulin for its needs..While symptoms often disappear after conventional treatment, the vital force does not. Homoeopathy can be used effectively in the treatment of diabetes. Here we mainly concentrate on functioning of the pancreas in efficient insulin production. The metabolic condition of a patient suffering from diabetes requires both therapeutic and nutritional measures to correct the illness. Homeopathy can regulate sugar metabolism while helping to resolve the metabolic disturbances that lead to diabetes. Furthermore, homeopathy helps stimulate the body’s self-healing powers in order to prevent complications such as open leg sores and other dysfunctions of the blood vessel, loss of vision, kidney failure. Homeopathic treatment does not target one illness, an organ, a body part or a symptom. Remedies are prescribed based on an assembly of presenting symptoms, their stresses in life.
Commonly indicated Homoeopathic remedies:
Syzygium: A most useful remedy in diabetes mellitus. No other remedy causes in so marked degree the diminution and disappearance of sugar in the urine. Prickly heat in upper part of the body; small red pimples itch violently. Great thirst, weakness, emaciation. Very large amounts of urine.. Diabetic ulceration.. Syzygium Jambolanum has marked action on diabetes mellitus as it causes marked diminution of sugar in urine. Great thirst with weakness, emaciation inspite of proper nutritious diet. Profuse urination of high specific gravity. Small red pimples with much itching. Syzygium Jambolanum also helps in treating old ulcers of skin associated with diabetes mellitus.
Uranium nitricum: Uranium Nitricum is a chief diuretic remedy. There is copious urination with incontinence of urine. It is indicated in glycosuria with increased urination, emaciation and tympanites. Uranium Nitiricum also helps in enuresis, the patient is unable to retain urine without pain. Burning in urethra, with very acid urine. There is a tendency to great emaciation, debility and general dropsy. Causes glycosuria and increased urine. Is known to produce nephritis, diabetes, degeneration of the liver, high blood pressure and dropsy. Its therapeutic keynote is Great emaciation, debility and tendency to ascites and general dropsy. Backache and delayed menses. Dry mucous membranes and skin.
Lycopodium: Diabetes. Anger during disease. Lost of self confidence. The right side conditions works well and thus improve the liver and kidney functioning as conditions Neuropathy. There is constipation due to inactivity of the rectum. Impotence. Intense desire for sweets.
Other indicated remedies: Lac.defloratam, Acid.phos, Acid.lact, Gymnema, Gridelia, Nat.mur etc.
Diabetes insipidus (DI) is an uncommon condition that occurs when the kidneys are unable to conserve water as they perform their function of filtering blood. The amount of water conserved is controlled by antidiuretic hormone (ADH), also called vasopressin.
Causative factors for diabetes insipidus
Diabetes insipidus can be caused by two problems with ADH.
- One is too little ADH is produced, that condition is called central diabetes insipidus.
- The other is there's enough ADH produced, but the kidneys can't respond to it. That condition is known as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.
- Cranial surgery, especially hypophysectomy; head injury, especially basal skull fractures); the polyuria is often transient in such cases
- Craniopharyngioma, hypothalamic tumors, pineal tumors, metastases
Symptoms of diabetes insipidus:
- Excessive thirst
- Excessive urine production (polyuria)
- In some people, these symptoms can become extreme, causing dehydration.
How to diagnose diabetes insipidus?
Diagnosing diabetes insipidus requires serial measurements of blood and urine. The person goes without water during this time and gets progressively thirstier. The concentrations of sodium in the blood and urine are determined over time. An ADH substitute might then be administered to see if the person's kidneys respond to it by concentrating the urine. The laboratory values and response to ADH can make the diagnosis.
How Homoeopathy helps to cure diabetes insipidus?
Homeopathic remedies can be very helpful in treating diabetes insipidus and they do not have side effects. It is also important to regularly take diabetes medications along with these homeopathic remedies. Only when the level of glucose is normal. The main role of homeopathy is to help a body to cure itself by giving small amounts of highly diluted substances. Potentisation or trituration is the process of preparing the homeopathic remedies.
Commonly indicated Homoeopathic remedies: Uranium nit, Curare, Nat.mur, Insulinum, Acid.phos etc.